The Atom 

Author; Eric Sabo, East Haddam, Ct. 

Mar 1, 2009 

     In 1913 Neils Bohr, based on Rutherford’s 1911 model, suggested that electrons orbit the atom’s nucleus like the planets in the solar system. To this day, there is no photographic evidence that this is a true statement. (I do, however subscribe to it.) Wolfgang Pauli introduced Quantum Mechanics in 1925 to rectify inadequacies in the Rutherford-Bohr model. 

     Pauli proposes that electrons pair up in energy levels. What immediately jumps out is why would two negatively charged particles pair up at all unless they were in orbiting 180° from each other? If they are assigned an opposite spin, conveniently, pairing becomes possible. 

     Scientists always have a need to have everything fit into neat quantitative packages. This is true in electron configuration, sub-atomic particles, and quark models. Myself, I think that Henri Poincaire’s Dynamical Chaos comes into play more than not. 

     More accurately, it’s all about Dynamical Chaos that manages to fall into parameters. The thought occurs to me that in the case of the Hydrogen atom, if we bring the Aether "Halflet" scenario into play, and incorporating Quantum Mechanics, it becomes possible the electron manifests itself as a spinning cloud of its Halflets. 

     The electron becomes a quantity of Halflets. The cloud finds the radius as the balance point between repulsion, attraction and centrifugal force. The cloud could change shape depending upon the atoms role in molecular construction. 

     An electron then takes particle form when pulled out of the cloud to form a molecular bond. Also, when a photon strikes the cloud, it is absorbed, expanding the cloud. Too much expansion and an electron mass then pops out creating havoc. 

     To rejoin the cloud, either a photon or more has to be re-emitted or a chemical bond is formed. As far as EM spectral emissions go, electrons pop in and out of the cloud emitting the photons necessary to produce the emissions depending on the atom and cloud size and density. 

     Not suggesting any should change horses midstream, Here is an idea drawn up with a drafting program with the cloud displayed as electron masses. This becomes useful to illustrate atomic balance. It seems logical the cloud would possess some gyroscopic stability. 

     With Helium we see;

 The Helium atom is balanced like a gyroscope, therefore stable. It is possible that electron arrangement changes to become the most gyroscopically stable to fit each atoms role in any given situation. 

When we move up to 3Li-6, that’s where Poincaire’s Dynamical Chaos comes into play again. The cloud is not given to symmetry. It is at best an unhappy arrangement; 

     It becomes apparent that 1, 2 and 3 electrons are the magic numbers for valence electrons. After that groups of 4 and combinations of 4 and 2 electrons are the stable elements. 1 electron quantity up or down and fireworks happen. Lithium is highly reactive. Put some Li in water and LiOH is quickly formed. 

     When it comes to chemical bonding, the shared electron quantity no longer travel in the shell. They electron quantity exists as a particle at a point 2x normal electron shell. The Lithium two unshared then pair and gyroscopically stabilize. LiOH is still reactive. It seems possible that the distribution of charge on the surface of any nucleus could vary to fit any given situation. 

     Moving up to 4Be-5, it has 4 electrons. With proposed 4 electrons orbiting in equal distribution to one another. It looks pretty stable. It becomes obvious that all electron quantities in any atom all exist in one shell.Their distribution is governed by their relation to one another and influenced by surrounding atoms.

      If we could go back to hydrogen, we must address diatomic Hydrogen. This arrangement arises. Notice the distribution of charges on the nuclear surface that prevents more than a diatomic arrangement from forming. The two hydrogen share the two electrons in a bond that is not as strong as a molecular bond. It is a secondary bond.

      Diatomic Nitrogen; 

Diatomic Oxygen; 

The water molecule; 

     Where is the 105° angle? Because we are looking at a single atom there is none. If the universe consisted of one water molecule, the above is what it would probably look like. Most likely, the above is what it looks like in vapor form. As cooling occurs, the distance between the nuclei decreases. Below would be the liquid where the molecular bonds wobble and flex, cushioned by the rest of the electrons. In these configurations the molecule is actually sort of tri-polar, with 2 positive ends and a negative center doughnut; 

     It’s in the solid form that the 105° angle appears. The angle is caused by the surrounding atoms and decreased space between atoms; 

It's probably a safe bet it is the reason Snowflakes take on a Hexagonal shape.

     The bottom line is, electron shell shape and molecular configuration is influenced by all the surrounding atoms. 

     Where we are going with this is the Iron atom. With all the electrons in one shell with equal distribution, I have four electrons per orbit in six orbits (24) and the last two in black (making 26) all running in sync. It looks pretty stable with the pair of 2 being the oddball. It does not exist in the real world as it is usually bound to something. 

     We are led to the following to explain magnetism. Apparently, above 912°C, the crystal structure of iron is Face Centered Cubic. (FCC) This is the best rendition I could come up with. Bear with me. The center of the face has the atom with 22 orbiting electrons (5 groups of 4, a pair, and four bonding = 26) In these drawings the remaining orbiting electron quantities become irrelevant to the process. 

     At 912°C, the crystal structure changes to Body Centered Cubic. It’s at this point that Poincaire’s dynamical play into the operation. To go from FCC to BCC, The number of bonds between atoms goes from 4 to 8. In the transition, 4 electrons have to make the jump. But which 4 will it be? I suggest it is a random call. But, before it is settled, more than four start to make the jump. I have chosen the four blue and the black pair. They start to leave orbit. 

     Suppose the four blue are accepted as the bonds. The black pair have started to make the jump also. The black pair continues on and lands mid-point between the adjacent nuclei. They then orbit around an apparent nuclear vortex created mid-point by the adjacent nuclei forming a secondary bond not unlike H2, N2, and O2. In BCC structure only 16 electrons remain in orbit. (16 + 8 bond + black pair =26)

      Because there is still too much energy in the crystal the black pair is oscillating and wobbling. Also, the transition proceeds in two directions – horizontal and vertical. As the iron cools, the space between atoms decreases. 

     At this point we have some secondary bonding black pairs at the left and some at the top. When the Curie point (770°C) is reached, the spacing and relation of all the atoms become tuned to stabilize the black pairs. 

     Because magnetism is self reinforcing, the black pairs begin to align themselves locally. The alignment grows and cascades through the iron (probably in the direction of greatest length) and the iron becomes magnetic all by itself. 

At this point, it is all a pretty delicate balance. As cooling and contracting progresses, it is in a non uniform manner. Some black pairs jump to find the a more accommodating location and the iron demagnetizes. 

     Eventually at room temperature, the black pairs have stabilized in various directions. Whole regions have aligned to form domains. But overall, they are not pointed in the same direction. Take an iron bar and put 100 VDC potential across it for a few seconds, and all the black pairs migrate to the same face and voila! A magnet! 

     There is a void at the right face center and protrusion at the left. Thus North and South poles are produced and reinforced by each atom in the line. Place an iron bar at one end and it becomes an extension of the magnet. Leave the bar there long enough and it retains some alignment. Bang on a magnet (compressing and deforming the structure) or heat it (add energy), the pairs jump out of alignment and focus is lost. Here is an end view; 

Thank you for your time, 

Eric Sabo