Home Page - December 25, 2005
The last obstacle to developing The Unified Theory has always been solving the mystery of how Gravity works. This site is the result of 40 years of observation and reflection of how things work and why they work the way they do. The gravitational explanation contained is correct, self evident, and thus, allows for the rest to logically follow.

Observe how thin the atmosphere is compared to the Earth's diameter.
Gravity is not a very strong force after all.

Nuclear Physicist - US Navy Nuclear Program 

E-1 Electrical Contractor in CT.  

"Science is a wonderful thing if one doesn't have to earn a living at it." A. Einstein

Musician, Recording Artist, Songwriter, Singer. (Of sorts...)

Gravity and the Unified Theory are not unlike a musical composition where all parts have to fit together in harmony.....

With Acoustic Guitar, there is no finer Artist than James Taylor. His "Frozen Man" is my favorite and most difficult to play and sing for 4 min and 17 sec without a mistake. It reminds me of myself.... https://youtu.be/RJdyYJDYXIo 

My own composition; "Lady" ; Recorded on a Fostex DMT 8vL 8 Track Simul-Sync Recorder. Played and sang all parts. Programmable Drummer with MIDI Interface, 7 of 8 tracks used. Pics from CA Trip. https://youtu.be/qk4hULhyJeA ©2001. More on the Music Page.

Gravity is the weak electrostatic attraction between atoms.
Gravity is a simple Electro Mechanical System. The attractive forces are greater than the repulsive between atoms because the attractive work together. It's like two against one.

Because the repulsive and attractive are acting simultaneously, objects don't fall at the speed of light. (So to speak.)

Imagine each individual atom in the Earth is acting on each individual atom in your body.  And as a side note, this is why all things fall at the same rate in a vacuum. 

It doesn't matter how many atoms there are because gravity is working on each individual atom.

So now the realization arises;
There is zero gravity but great pressure at the center of the Earth.

To simply demonstrate how the Gravitational Force builds between atoms, take two hydrogen atoms;

To physically experience the effect of Attraction and Repulsion, get two magnets and push the two N together. Notice how the two deflect.

Now try N to S and you will see they are always
locked in because they work together.
Electrostatics behave in the same manner.
The attractive are always greater than the repulsive.

Most will agree with my assumption that attraction
is greater than repulsion. But, I received this argument about the forces extending outside an atom;
“Orbits are an equilibrium of forces. One aspect of inequality is mass differences, but the forces are equal and opposite in Newton's mechanics”.

That is correct inside any particular atom if there were only one atom in the universe. Because the electromagnetic range is infinite, (It's the law and is self evidentThere simply has to be a very slight attraction between atoms. For simplicity sake we will have to start with some Hydrogen atoms. 

Observe this example of a two, three, and four Hydrogen Atom gravitational system;   

Now, multiply this concept to equal the number of atoms in the Earth and everything on it, and there you have it! Gravity. Every atom in a system is interconnected. All atoms have different gravitational properties depending on their atomic number. It becomes a random additive field. 

Or as Walter Babin said, "It's a Residual...."

Because the attraction decreases by the square as the distance doubles (from the collective source), the atoms closest to you under your feet are having greater influence than those on the other side of the planet. 

So, If you are driving your car from say, New Haven, CT, to Ocean City, MD, a whole group of different atoms are taking over as you travel along. And, as you travel away from the Earth, it all appears as a point source.

So now all the below arises;
1. There is zero gravity at the center of the Earth.

2. A gravimeter lowered down the deepest oil well will show a decrease in gravity. 

3. Gravity varies across the globe because of varying crust material as demonstrated by the USGS gravitational surveys in Nevada and Afghanistan. 

4. Gravity is manifested in a "BEAM" form rather than a "WELL" as "you know who", worked it out........

The moon creates the tides;

The Moon actually cancels a portion of the Earth's Gravity causing a bulge on  opposite sides of the Earth.

To me, all things are basically simple. Gravity is a simple. It's incoherent Electromagnetism. In that each atom is a tiny weak Electromagnet. (some better than others)They are not all pointed in the same direction and can't be aligned to do so as in an Iron magnet. 

You are walking around on this planet. You have to admit, it feels like a big magnet. Bringing in a bit of Henri Poincare (April 29, 1854-July 17, 1912), and a bit of Walter Babin (1934-2000 - I do miss Walter), Gravity becomes;

The Dynamical Chaotic Residual of the Incoherent Electromagnetism of all the Individual Atoms Contained in an Object or System.

A picture is worth a thousand words and maybe 100,000 math formulas. Because gravity is a Dynamical Chaotic Residual, it cannot be discovered through mathematics. Gravity must be visualized as a mechanical system that can be then generally described by mathematics. It's simple;

The more atoms you have, the more gravity you have!!

Thank you for your time. 

     Early on in this website endeavor, I had received an email from Joe Nahhas and the subject was “Gravity Bumber”. The email simply said “All things fall at the same time.”  I assumed he meant rate. 

     My reply was “The difference in mass between a feather and a bowling ball falling in a vacuum with respect to the gravitational field of the Earth was zero.” 

     I thought that was sufficient and sounded like a good answer and I never gave it much thought after that.  But then one day, I was watching “The top 100 discoveries in physics” on the Science Channel. This show had “Bill Nye the Science Guy” talking about gravity and how all things fall at the same rate in a vacuum. 

     He was at a site where a large vacuum chamber was constructed in order to drop objects of different sizes to accurately measure their rate of fall. The sizes ranged from small items to 5 tons. It started me thinking that maybe a more detailed explanation was in order.             

      If we recap the gravity explanation; It’s a dynamical chaotic residual. It’s weak incoherent Electromagnetism. Think of it as each atom in a object is a tiny spinning Electromagnet. They’re not all pointed in the same direction. They can’t be made to do so. That’s where the “Dynamical Chaos” comes into play. (And math out of it)

      It takes a tremendous number of atoms for the gravitational field to be of consequence. Something like the size of the earth. The reason all things fall at the same rate is this;

     As a bowling ball or the 5 ton weight is hanging in Bill Nye’s vacuum chamber by the suspension cable, they have a weight that can be measured by a load cell in line with the cable. This is because all the atoms in the suspended weight are chemically bound and are grouped. The sum of the group is its weight. The instant the cable is released, the object becomes weightless.

     It doesn’t matter how many atoms are in the object at this point because the gravitational Aether acts on each individual atom contained in the object. 

      It is of no consequence how many atoms are in the falling object because gravity acts on each individual atom in the object. It is only when the object comes to rest on the surface, that the object can be again weighed.           

The rate of fall is set by the repulsive forces.

Thank you for your time,                                                                         

Eric Sabo  

P.S. A Bill Nye side note;  I was watching "Larry King Live" in ~2006. Bill Nye and Edgar Mitchell were on. The topic was UFO's. Bill Nye, a UFO non-believer, was in the studio and Edgar Mitchell was remote. It was a good thing as the discussion was heated. I swear Edgar Mitchell would have punched Bill Nye in the face if they were both in the studio.  

Edgar Mitchell piloted Apollo 14 to the moon, 6th man to walk on the Lunar Surface and was actually from Roswell NM. Edgar Mitchell knew all the people their and their stories.....

        For a Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactor, Uranium is enriched to achieve 5% U-235 and 95% U-238. U-235 occurs at 1% in nature and is what makes the process happen. The mixture is formed into pellets. The pellets are placed into long tubes which are then arranged with spacing for cooling water channels into what are called fuel assemblies. 

      The fuel assemblies are shipped by truck to the reactor site. They're not highly radioactive. There are some spontaneous fissions but the resulting Neutrons are fast Neutrons. Fast Neutrons just bounce off the U-235 nuclei.           

      It is not until the fuel assemblies are installed into the reactor vessel and water is added that things start to happen. Boron control rods that absorb Neutrons stop the reaction from starting. The control rods are slowly withdrawn to expose a portion of the reactor core to itself. Spontaneous fission neutrons enter the water channels striking Protons in the water, slowing them down. (Not unlike a queue ball striking a billiard ball where the queue stops and the billiard ball moves on.)

     The slowed neutron then migrates through the water channel into adjacent fuel where it encounters a U-235 atom, is “absorbed” and the U-235 subsequently fissions. The fission rate proceeds and a criticality factor = 1 is maintained. That is, one fission creates one more fission, no more, no less. The Boron control rods are periodically withdrawn to expose new U-235 as the initial exposure starts to burn out. The water has two functions;

     1. It provides cooling.

     2. It is the moderator that controls the fission rate. Neutron's have to be slowed down because fast Neutrons just bounce off the U-235 nuclei. Too much fission and the water heats up, becomes less dense and less Neutrons are slowed down decreasing fission rate. Cooler water, more fission occurs. The water moderator maintains the criticality factor = 1. The Reactor is in a sense, Self Moderating.

      In addition, some of the U-238 absorbs some of the slowed neutrons. It becomes U-239 which decays by Beta to become Neptunium 239 (Np-239) which again decays by Beta to become best friend, Plutonium 239. In effect, the reactor manufactures more fuel for itself. In fact, Fast Breeder Reactors 

      So, the big question is; 

Why do the Neutrons have to be slowed down?

(If you liked anything up to this point, You’re going to love this.)

     The answer is; Time........

     Given that a "Free" Neutron decays to an Electron and a Proton in about 14 minutes, it's obviously a particle that contains both Positive and Negative components.

     A slowed Neutron has the very small amount of time required to become polarized in order to attach itself to the surface of the U-235 and subsequently be absorbed to cause fission to occur. Observe;

    Bombs are different. It is desirable to go from a criticality factor of .9 to 2 in less than 10 generations. Introducing Tritium into a Pu-239 pit just prior to detonation provides an abundance of stationary neutrons for fission. 
Also a Be-4 reflector slows and returns first generation detonation Neutrons to the pit giving us a most efficient 5 kiloton yield from a less than non reflected critical mass. 

The Matter-Anti Matter Reaction

Jan 31, 2008 

Author; Eric Sabo 

     Because, “When you have eliminated the impossible, what ever remains, however improbable, must be the truth”: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, all of the following should be correct; 

     The Matter-Antimatter reaction gives us true insight as to the composition of matter. It is unimaginable that we have all not contemplated at least some of the scenarios expressed in this paper at one time or another. 

     First, if matter can be converted into energy, then it must be that energy can be converted into matter. How could this process work? It has been suggested that light (Photons) have dual states, a particle and a wavelet. Why not three states, a particle, a wavelet, and a fluid? 

     The fluid state being what exists inside protons, neutrons, and electrons. Being that photons come in a wide variety, from infra-red, through the visible spectrum, ultraviolet, to x-ray and gammas, what makes them all different is their frequency or rate of oscillation. What makes them oscillate? Why not a very small positive and negative charge revolving around each other? Observe;


     The frequency is the rate the charges revolve around each other. The greater the frequency is, the greater the energy the photon carries. The photon travels through a vacuum as a particle. When encountering a medium such as the earth’s atmosphere, it leap frogs through the medium, the charges pulling each other along, interacting with the medium in a wide variety of ways depending on their frequency. It appears as a disturbance in the medium.

      For example, in the visible spectrum, blues scatter making the sky blue and reds travel straight through making a red sunset. Radio frequencies emanate from an antenna, initially as a photon, creating cascading disturbances that appear sand propagates as a wave.

     Continuing the idea that photons do contain a minute positive and negative charge revolving around each other. Call them “Aether Halflets”, a +Halflet and a - halflet. Observe below; 

      In the matter-antimatter reaction, a proton and anti-proton (Negatron) approach each other. They spiral around each other until they come into contact. When that happens, both are totally converted to energy in the form of photons. TOTAL Annihilation...This is a true statement. 

     I am referring to the Anti-Proton as a Negatron to fit in the drawing. Also, the same below illustration applies to the Electron-Positron annihilation.

     With the proposed Halflet model, this is how such an event could occur; The proton has +Halflets on its surface and the negatron -Halflets on its surface. 

     When they come into contact, the +Halflets and -Halflets combine, pairing up once again to form Gamma photons, one at a time. When the Proton and Negatron come into contact, they pull each other apart. 

     The Halflet pairing proceeds very rapidly until nothing remains. It's obvious that far more Gamma Photons would be produced from the Proton-Negatron Reaction than the same Electron-Positron annihilation.

     This may be too extreme for most. But, the above photon model would explain why photons are affected by a gravitational field. (Gravitational Lensing) The positive element is attracted by the field negatives and vice versa. 

     So now we have to ask; How is Matter actually created? How could these photons be converted to matter? Well.... In a nova or supernova event. At the Ablation Boundary.

     The overwhelmingly large forces exist at the Ablation Boundary capable of performing the task. Perhaps, even inside or own sun it may be possible for the process to occur. Immense radiation pressure brings photons into close proximity. Observe the following drawings with a small portion of photons depicted; 

     Once in close proximity, all the photons positives and negatives attract. (Only a portion of the lines are drawn in) 

     All the charges interlock in stasis forming a free neutron. (Only a portion of the Halflets and lines are drawn in) 

     Why does the free neutron have a discrete size? 

     The Free Neutron (or Proton and Electron) size most likely falls within a small range. At the edge of that range, a fall off of attraction occurs that manifests itself in a manner not unlike the buckling effect in a nuclear reactor. Photons that are outside the free neutron boundary, form into other neutrons or fly off as radiation. 

     Once a free neutron is formed, it can be “popped” to form hydrogen, with one proton and one electron. When this occurs, the proton surface has an equal number of P-halflets to Nhalflets on the electron’s surface. (Only a portion of the halflets and lines are drawn in) 

     When a neutron is incorporated into a neucleus, because the Halflets are fluid, their distribution can be influenced by adjacent protons or neutrons.

      A neutron’s and proton’s proportions (or Halflet content) in the nucleus change as the nuclear size increases up the periodic table because of total nuclear halflet content.

     The nuclei increase in atomic number up the periodic table (mass increase not being linear) to reach a point that the nuclei become increasingly unstable until the limit (end of the table) is reached. 

     This process is similar to the Free Neutron size limit. Obviously, there are no Antimatter neutrons. 

     So why is then, is the Free Neutron "Popped" (Or Decay) into a Proton and Electron in ~14 minutes?

The Free Neutron is pulled apart by the ambient environment of other Molecules and Atoms. 

Thank you for your time. 

 “When you have eliminated the impossible, what ever remains, however improbable, must be the truth”: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle 

The Atom 

Author; Eric Sabo, East Haddam, Ct. 

Mar 1, 2009 

     In 1913 Neils Bohr, based on Rutherford’s 1911 model, suggested that electrons orbit the atom’s nucleus like the planets in the solar system. To this day, there is no photographic evidence that this is a true statement. (I do, however subscribe to it.) Wolfgang Pauli introduced Quantum Mechanics in 1925 to rectify inadequacies in the Rutherford-Bohr model. 

     Pauli proposes that electrons pair up in energy levels. What immediately jumps out is why would two negatively charged particles pair up at all unless they were in orbiting 180° from each other? If they are assigned an opposite spin, conveniently, pairing becomes possible. 

     Scientists always have a need to have everything fit into neat quantitative packages. This is true in electron configuration, sub-atomic particles, and quark models. Myself, I think that Henri Poincaire’s Dynamical Chaos comes into play more than not. 

     More accurately, it’s all about Dynamical Chaos that manages to fall into parameters. The thought occurs to me that in the case of the Hydrogen atom, if we bring the Aether "Halflet" scenario into play, and incorporating Quantum Mechanics, it becomes possible the electron manifests itself as a spinning cloud of its Halflets. 

     The electron becomes a quantity of Halflets. The cloud finds the radius as the balance point between repulsion, attraction and centrifugal force. The cloud could change shape depending upon the atoms role in molecular construction. 

     An electron then takes particle form when pulled out of the cloud to form a molecular bond. Also, when a photon strikes the cloud, it is absorbed, expanding the cloud. Too much expansion and an electron mass then pops out creating havoc. 

     To rejoin the cloud, either a photon or more has to be re-emitted or a chemical bond is formed. As far as EM spectral emissions go, electrons pop in and out of the cloud emitting the photons necessary to produce the emissions depending on the atom and cloud size and density. 

     Not suggesting any should change horses midstream, Here is an idea drawn up with a drafting program with the cloud displayed as electron masses. This becomes useful to illustrate atomic balance. It seems logical the cloud would possess some gyroscopic stability. 

     With Helium we see;

 The Helium atom is balanced like a gyroscope, therefore stable. It is possible that electron arrangement changes to become the most gyroscopically stable to fit each atoms role in any given situation. 

When we move up to 3Li-6, that’s where Poincaire’s Dynamical Chaos comes into play again. The cloud is not given to symmetry. It is at best an unhappy arrangement; 

     It becomes apparent that 1, 2 and 3 electrons are the magic numbers for valence electrons. After that groups of 4 and combinations of 4 and 2 electrons are the stable elements. 1 electron quantity up or down and fireworks happen. Lithium is highly reactive. Put some Li in water and LiOH is quickly formed. 

     When it comes to chemical bonding, the shared electron quantity no longer travel in the shell. They electron quantity exists as a particle at a point 2x normal electron shell. The Lithium two unshared then pair and gyroscopically stabilize. LiOH is still reactive. It seems possible that the distribution of charge on the surface of any nucleus could vary to fit any given situation. 

     Moving up to 4Be-5, it has 4 electrons. With proposed 4 electrons orbiting in equal distribution to one another. It looks pretty stable. It becomes obvious that all electron quantities in any atom all exist in one shell.Their distribution is governed by their relation to one another and influenced by surrounding atoms.

      If we could go back to hydrogen, we must address diatomic Hydrogen. This arrangement arises. Notice the distribution of charges on the nuclear surface that prevents more than a diatomic arrangement from forming. The two hydrogen share the two electrons in a bond that is not as strong as a molecular bond. It is a secondary bond.

      Diatomic Nitrogen; 

Diatomic Oxygen; 

The water molecule; 

     Where is the 105° angle? Because we are looking at a single atom there is none. If the universe consisted of one water molecule, the above is what it would probably look like. Most likely, the above is what it looks like in vapor form. As cooling occurs, the distance between the nuclei decreases. Below would be the liquid where the molecular bonds wobble and flex, cushioned by the rest of the electrons. In these configurations the molecule is actually sort of tri-polar, with 2 positive ends and a negative center doughnut; 

     It’s in the solid form that the 105° angle appears. The angle is caused by the surrounding atoms and decreased space between atoms; 

It's probably a safe bet it is the reason Snowflakes take on a Hexagonal shape.

     The bottom line is, electron shell shape and molecular configuration is influenced by all the surrounding atoms. 

     Where we are going with this is the Iron atom. With all the electrons in one shell with equal distribution, I have four electrons per orbit in six orbits (24) and the last two in black (making 26) all running in sync. It looks pretty stable with the pair of 2 being the oddball. It does not exist in the real world as it is usually bound to something. 

     We are led to the following to explain magnetism. Apparently, above 912°C, the crystal structure of iron is Face Centered Cubic. (FCC) This is the best rendition I could come up with. Bear with me. The center of the face has the atom with 22 orbiting electrons (5 groups of 4, a pair, and four bonding = 26) In these drawings the remaining orbiting electron quantities become irrelevant to the process. 

     At 912°C, the crystal structure changes to Body Centered Cubic. It’s at this point that Poincaire’s dynamical play into the operation. To go from FCC to BCC, The number of bonds between atoms goes from 4 to 8. In the transition, 4 electrons have to make the jump. But which 4 will it be? I suggest it is a random call. But, before it is settled, more than four start to make the jump. I have chosen the four blue and the black pair. They start to leave orbit. 

     Suppose the four blue are accepted as the bonds. The black pair have started to make the jump also. The black pair continues on and lands mid-point between the adjacent nuclei. They then orbit around an apparent nuclear vortex created mid-point by the adjacent nuclei forming a secondary bond not unlike H2, N2, and O2. In BCC structure only 16 electrons remain in orbit. (16 + 8 bond + black pair =26)

      Because there is still too much energy in the crystal the black pair is oscillating and wobbling. Also, the transition proceeds in two directions – horizontal and vertical. As the iron cools, the space between atoms decreases. 

     At this point we have some secondary bonding black pairs at the left and some at the top. When the Curie point (770°C) is reached, the spacing and relation of all the atoms become tuned to stabilize the black pairs. 

     Because magnetism is self reinforcing, the black pairs begin to align themselves locally. The alignment grows and cascades through the iron (probably in the direction of greatest length) and the iron becomes magnetic all by itself. 

At this point, it is all a pretty delicate balance. As cooling and contracting progresses, it is in a non uniform manner. Some black pairs jump to find the a more accommodating location and the iron demagnetizes. 

     Eventually at room temperature, the black pairs have stabilized in various directions. Whole regions have aligned to form domains. But overall, they are not pointed in the same direction. Take an iron bar and put 100 VDC potential across it for a few seconds, and all the black pairs migrate to the same face and voila! A magnet! 

     There is a void at the right face center and protrusion at the left. Thus North and South poles are produced and reinforced by each atom in the line. Place an iron bar at one end and it becomes an extension of the magnet. Leave the bar there long enough and it retains some alignment. Bang on a magnet (compressing and deforming the structure) or heat it (add energy), the pairs jump out of alignment and focus is lost. Here is an end view; 

Thank you for your time, 

Eric Sabo

     I have been selling this idea for years with little success. When Walter Babin saw it as a “residual”. I liked that viewpoint. When I asked him “Why does no one see this mechanism as a viable explanation?” He offered;

“Whether it’s a vested interest or Pavlovian response, they cling to their beliefs like religious zealots.” -Walter Babin      

     Those are powerful words that reflect a truthful perspective no matter what the field of endeavor. I, myself think three things;

1. The current thinking in this area is built on 17th century thinking. This different perspective has been simply overlooked based on what has been engrained in current curriculum. 

2. Thinking in this area has always been left to those who can afford to do so. This is common in all areas of human endeavor.

3. Apparently, it has been difficult throughout history for new ideas to gain acceptance. The following quotes seem to apply;

"A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it": Max Planck –

"First they tell you you're wrong and they can prove it; then they tell you you're right but it isn't important; then they tell you it's important but they knew it all along"- Charles Kettering –

  • Old Saybrook, Connecticut, United States